# Quantum Computers? And How Do Quantum Computers Work?

## What are Quantum Computers?

All computers rely on a fundamental ability to store and manipulate information. Current computers manipulate individual bits, which store information as binary 0 and 1 states.

For example, when our human eyes see the letter "A", our computer sees a specific string of zeroes and ones.

From social media to spreadsheets (show examples of classical computer: Word, Excel, social media, video games, etc), everything is done through these sequences of zeroes and ones (matrix style string of bits). Where current computers use bits, quantum computers use qubits.

The bits in our current computers can only be either one or zero, but not both. But qubits can represent a one and a zero at the same time. So if computers were coins, current models would be a coin flip with either heads or tails as the only outcomes.

But **quantum computing** would be like spinning the coin; the computer doesn't have to choose one or the other. This allows quantum computers to look at many different variables simultaneously.

The good news is that **quantum computers **would be thousands of times faster than our current computers, possibly reducing the time to solve a complex problem from hundreds of thousands of years to mere seconds. The bad news?

### Quantum Computers Explained Limits of Human Technology

**Quantum computers** are very fragile and need to be perfectly isolated from heat and vibration. One quantum computer is kept cool at 0.015 Kelvin, or about 180 times colder than interstellar space.

Although quantum computers promise to power exciting advances such as better batteries or new disease-curing medicines, conventional computers will still be the easiest and most economical solution for tackling most problems.

### Quantum computers: Computing the unimaginable

**Quantum computers could one day solve some of the world's toughest problems, and they’d do this by working completely differently from a regular computer.**

Information is stored in your laptop in bits. Every bit is either a one or a zero: up or down. But quantum computers are made of qubits. Unlike bits, qubits can be a mixture of one and zero at the same time.

Quantum computers are made of several entangled qubits with all their states connected together. But actually building a quantum computer is a challenge.

In normal computers, it’s easy to add more bits, but for **quantum computers** the more qubits you have the harder it is to add one more.

This makes it tricky to scale up from a **simple quantum computer to something more powerful.** Another problem is that **quantum computers have to keep their qubits protected.**

Too much interference from the outside world and the entanglement is broken. But overcoming these challenges and building a powerful **quantum computer would come with big rewards. **Take searching: imagine you have a bunch of mixed-up business cards.

### How would a computer find the right one?

A normal computer has to look through, one by one, until it eventually finds the right card. But a **quantum computer has a trick up its sleeve.** Because the quantum computer is in many states at once, it can search all the cards at once.

After several sweeps, it finds the card.

And quantum computers could help tackle all sorts of other problems, like modeling protein folding, and cracking data encryption.

But, even if scientists can one day build **a powerful quantum computer it probably wouldn't be useful for everyday tasks, so don't throw away your laptop just yet.**

## How Do Quantum Computers Work?

Ever since I first heard **about quantum computing,** there was something that bugged me about it. The story goes like this: **All operational computers today are classical computers.**

They store and operate on information represented as 1s and 0s (bits) to solve intensive, mathematical problems.

**Quantum computers, which are being developed in labs right now, are fundamentally different**. They take advantage of quantum mechanics to do multiple calculations at once.

This is **done by putting quantum bits into superpositions so they can be 1 and 0 at the same time.** But you have to be careful with superpositions, because as soon as you read them, they collapse to either a 1 or 0, with a known probability.

If all that was a little too fast, feel free to check out Building the Bits and Qubits, as it explains all of this more clearly.

## 3 Types of quantum computers

- Quantum Annealer
- Analog Quantum Computer
- Universal Quantum Computer

## Quantum computer Google

**In 2019, Google reported that its Sycamore quantum PC** had gotten done with a job in 200 seconds that would take a regular PC 10,000 years. (Different scientists would later depict an approach to extraordinarily accelerate the customary PC's estimation.)

### Building a Quantum Computer I Inventors at Google

We're on a path to building a useful,** error-corrected quantum computer within the decade.** This will accelerate solutions for some of the world’s most pressing problems, like sustainable energy, and unlock new scientific discoveries, like more helpful AI. It begins at our new **Quantum AI campus in Santa Barbara.**

### Demonstrating Quantum Supremacy

We’re marking a major milestone in** quantum computing research that opens up new possibilities for this technology.** Learn how the Google AI Quantum team demonstrated how a quantum computer can perform a task no classical computer can in an experiment called "**quantum supremacy.**"

## How many quantum computers exist

### ColdQuanta

This quantum figuring association shows its Quantum Core-based quantum processing innovation. This Quantum Core, which can be utilized in various **quantum frameworks, likewise assists with worldwide situating, signal handling, and interchanges. **

ColdQuants is as yet zeroing in on the turn of events and improvement of quantum materials and innovations to make the right sort of innovation for a quantum registering stage.

### Microsoft

In a joint effort with scholastic and examination organizations all throughout the planet, **Microsoft Quantum Computing performs** test and hypothetical cycles to foster **quantum PCs, utilizing researchers**, scholars, and physicists from math, physical science, and software engineering. The point is to foster our insight into** quantum figuring, **just as its executions and mix.

### Zapata Computing

Endeavor groups might utilize Zapata Computing to support **quantum arrangements** and usefulness. Orquestra, a start to finish, work process-based quantum figuring set of instruments, was made by it. Orquestra presently incorporates with **Qiskit and IBM** **Quantums open quantum frameworks, Honeywells System Model H, and Amazon Bracket,** rather than beforehand accessible backends that give a full scope of test systems and customary apparatuses, as indicated by the organization. Orquestra is a quantum AI, reenactment, and streamlining instrument that can be utilized through industrial areas.

### 1QBit

At the point when it came to pharma research,** 1QBit stood out as truly newsworthy by working together** with two top names: innovation counseling organization Accenture and biotech general Biogen. The essential point is to assemble a **sub-atomic demonstrating application utilizing quantum processing,** which might prompt medication improvement headways for neurodegenerative infections like dementia.

### QC Ware

However QC Ware is now fostering a quantum distributed computing stage for big business frameworks, the** company's programming is being created to work with any quantum processing equipment. **

Scientists and specialists have had the option to fuse **quantum processing into their present work processes with the guide of QC Ware.** Likewise, top quantum figuring equipment might be utilized to construct applications.

### D-Wave Solutions

It is an organization that is exclusively centered around boosting the upsides of quantum registering.** In excess of 150 clients created quantum applications, **for example, apparatuses for carrier plans, science displaying, designing, wellbeing, and car configuration, which are fueled by the organization. Through their Leap quantum cloud administration,** D-Wave helps organizations of all sizes investigate quantum processing prospects in everything from material science to computerization and AI. **

### IBM

IBM is one of the universes driving **quantum figuring firms. **It basically helps the organization in acquiring reasonable **quantum abilities and early quantum advantage use cases.** IBM is one of the significant quantum figuring firms, and it's an ideal method for reaching out to experts in the field of examination, hypothesis, and software engineering, which are three of the company's center specialized topics.

### Honeywell

It is one of the **industry's early forerunners in quantum figuring.** In 2014, the organization started its excursion by participating in imaginative insight research undertaking to more deeply study innovation. Honeywell is presently intensely putting resources into an idea known as caught particle quantum registering. This technique utilizes particles suspended in space to transfer information through their development.

### Xanadu

Xanadu is a quantum innovation organization situated in Canada fully intent on making quantum PCs that are both valuable and open to all. **The company's Xanadu Quantum Cloud (XQC) administration additionally gives clients admittance to approach term quantum gadgets. **

### Regetti

It is a full-stack quantum figuring firm that plans and delivers superconducting q**uantum incorporated circuits, bundles and conveys them in a low-temperature setting, and creates control frameworks to execute quantum rationale procedure on them.**